Download Anaesthesia and intensive care A-Z : an encyclopaedia of by S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith PDF

By S M Yentis; Nicholas Hirsch; James K Ip; G B Smith

ISBN-10: 0702044202

ISBN-13: 9780702044205

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Paraesthesia/tetany (reduced free ionised calcium concentration due to altered protein-binding). ● Treatment: ◗ correction of ECF and potassium depletion. g. ammonium chloride or hydrochloric acid: deficit = base excess × body weight (kg) mmol. See also, Acid–base balance Alkalosis, respiratory. Alkalosis due to decreased arterial PCO2. g. fear, pain, hypoxia, pregnancy, or during IPPV. ● Primary change: decreased arterial PCO2. ● Compensation: ◗ initial fall in plasma bicarbonate due to decreased carbonic acid formation and dissociation.

G. ambient temperature is –20°C at 18 000 ft (5486 m). g. inner ear. ◗ decompression sickness. ◗ anaesthetic apparatus at high altitude: - vaporisers: SVP is unaffected by atmospheric pressure; thus the partial pressure of volatile agent in the vaporiser is the same as at sea level. Because atmospheric pressure is reduced, the delivered concentration is increased from that marked on the dial, but since anaesthetic action depends on alveolar partial pressure, not concentration, the same settings may be used as at sea level.

Inclusion of glutamate in enteral feeds appears to reduce gut permeability and prevents the mucosal atrophy that occurs when food is not given by the enteral route. Synthetic crystalline amino acid solutions (containing the l-isomers) are used as a nitrogen source during TPN. The composition of solutions varies considerably by manufacturer, although all provide the essential, and most of the non-essential, amino acids. Enteral feed solutions also include a mixture of amino acids. See also, Nitrogen balance γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA).

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