By Pant, D.D. and Osborne, R. and Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany
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Extra info for An introduction to gymnosperms, cycas, and cycadales
Czekanowskiopsida Order 5. Class 4. Ephedrales Czekanowskiales Taxopsida Order 6. Tax ales Such unusual fossils as the Vojnovskyales including Vojnovskya paradoxa (Neuburg, 1955), which are reported to have bisexual cones 42 INTRODUCTION TO GYMNOSPERMS, CYCAS AND CYCADALES Most of the families included under the orders are based on fossil forms where, not to say of whole plants, even the habit of the plants is unknown or uncertain. The class includes only two living genera, Ginkgo having, besides imperfectly known fossils, only a single living species, G.
OOPHrTE Fig. 1. Diagrammatic figures of the habit and comparative size of typical plants of cycadophytes and coniferophytes (after Chamberlain. 1930). the emphasis on the primary characteristics in the two classifications is different. According to Chamberlain (1935) these two lines have been distinct since the Devonian period although he believes that both of them have arisen independently from the ferns. The main basis of Sahni 's classification is the morphological nature ofthe ovule-bearing organs.
Arberiaceae Order 8. 1. Caytoniales Caytoniaceae Order 7. Glossopteridales) 1. Leptostrobales (= Czekanowskiales) 43 1. Lebachiaceae 2. Buriadiaceae 3. Voltziaceae (genera Gothania, Nucellangium, Pinales (= Coniferales) 44 INTRODUCTION TO GYMNOSPERMS, CYCAS AND CYCADALES 4. Cycadocarpidiaceae 5. Cheirolepidiaceae 6. Palissyaceae 7. Araucariaceae 8. Pinaceae 9. Taxodiaceae 10. Cupressaceae 11. Podocarpaceae 12. Taxaceae 13. Cephalotaxaceae A common feature of the classifications suggested by Amold, Engler, Melchior & Werdermann, Pant and Meyen is "inflation" (see Harris, 1962-63) and this may appear unsavoury.