By Michael Bradie
Publication via Bradie, Michael
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Extra info for Action and Responsibility
A necessary additional condition is that the threat appeals to desires beyond the victim's ability to contro l. A quotation is instructive. "If the victim's desire or motive to avoid the penalty .. is ... so powerful that he cannot prevent it from leading him to submit to the threat, then he really has no alternative other than to submit" (italics mine). 13 Frankfurt notes that we may make an adverse judgment even under such circumstances, either because we hold the person (derivatively) responsible for his inability or because we wish to express our lack of respect for such a person.
3. See the papers referred to in not e l. 4. See pp. 89 and 90 of my "Reply to Narveson," Philosophica/ Studies 32 (1977). 5. If the words 'even parti y' were omitted from the sentenee-form that 'Np' abbreviates, then (B) might be open to counterexample. Suppose, for example, that Smith kills the eJder of the Jones twins and that the younger is killed by a bolt from the blue. 1t is at least arguable that in that case neither Smith nor anyone else is responsible for the fact that both the Jones twins are dead.
Morgenbesser, P. Suppes and M. White (New York: St. Martin's, 1969). 9. A similar point is made by Harry G. Frankfurt, "Coercion and Moral Responsibility," Essays on Freedom of Action, ed. T. Honderich (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1973), pp. 65-86. 10. Audi, 1-14. Il. Audi's definition of "compulsion" makes it an evaluative notion too. But our critique is not affected by this consideration. 12. P. S. Greenspan, "Behavior Control and Freedom of Action," Philosophical Review, LXXXVII, No. 2 (April, 1978), 225-40.