Download Abstract Entities by Roger Teichmann (auth.) PDF

By Roger Teichmann (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1349218650

ISBN-13: 9781349218653

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Example text

It may not seem obvious that every main functor of a sentence will be such that one can apply the same operator to it as one can apply to the whole sentence. If, for instance, the main functor is a sentential connective, such as 'and', does it really make sense to speak of applying negation to it, let alone operators such as 'Nelly believes that'? Sometimes ordinary language will encourage speaking in this way, but often it will not. (Thus, the 'neither ... nor ... ' construction encourages the idea that' ...

Here, one must also substitute 'Ben' for 'Bill'. Nevertheless, it is clearly through such processes as the substituting of expressions throughout valid arguments that one does determine when two expressions are of the same logical category. How then is it that we give 'the logical form' of a sentence, very often, by means of a rendition, or schema of a rendition, which we say shows the logical form of the sentence? A sentence or sentence-schema cannot literally show its inferential capacities - it can only show its (surface) form.

The expression 'partakes of ... ) Hence, it is not just a contingent truth that sentences of a given logical form are more often of such-and-such a grammatical form than of such-and-such a grammatical form. Our grammatical categories are fixed in large part by the logical capacities of sentences: it is just because of the logical capacities of sentences like 'If anyone is humble, he is thereby virtuous' that we are able to discern, for example, two clauses and two pronouns in such sentences, but not in sentences like 'John is a man'.

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