By Richard H. Groshong
Geological constructions are 3 dimensional, but are usually represented via, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, known as 2½-D, supply a more in-depth method of 3 dimensionality. desktop expertise now enables geological interpretations to be built from the start in an absolutely 3 dim- sional atmosphere. totally three-D geological versions enable a lot better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more straightforward to percentage with different geologists and with most of the people. This e-book presents an summary of recommendations for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and 3-D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the keep an eye on issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that buildings are third-dimensional stable our bodies and that info from through the constitution, even if in 2-D or 3D layout, might be built-in into an internally constant 3-D interpretation. it's assumed that almost all clients of this publication will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the ebook offers quantitative structural tools and strategies which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and three-d c- puter-graphics courses. The booklet is usually meant to supply the history for knowing what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does immediately. such a lot thoughts are provided in either a conventional layout applicable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative structure to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Additional resources for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
14c). Find the pole to the plane by placing the overlay in the starting position for drawing bedding, that is, with the strike direction N-S. Along the E-W axis, count in from the primitive circle an amount equal to the dip, then count another 90° to find the pole (Fig. 14b) or, equivalently, count the dip amount up (outward) from the center point of the diagram. Mark the position of the E-W line on the primitive circle and return the overlay to its original position to find the trend of the pole (330°).
A stereogram is used with a transparent overlay on which the data are plotted and which can be rotated about the center of the graph. To begin using a stereogram, on the overlay, mark the center and the north, east, south, and west directions, and the primitive circle (Fig. 14a). To plot the attitude of a plane from the strike and dip (for example, 60, 32SE), mark the strike on the primitive circle. Then rotate the overlay so that the strike direction lies on the N-S axis (Fig. 14b), find the great circle corresponding to the dip by counting down (inward) along the E-W axis from the primitive circle (zero dip) the dip amount in the dip direction.
Geologic map on a topographic base. Contours are in feet and the scale bar is 1 000 ft. Three formations are present, from oldest to youngest: Mtfp, Mpm, Mh. Attitude of bedding is shown by an arrow w pointing in the dip direction, with the dip amount indicated. a Outcrop map showing locations of direct observations (shaded). b Completed geologic map, contacts wide where observed, thin where inferred. 2 Wells Wells provide subsurface information on the location of formation boundaries and the attitude of planes.