Download 3-D Structural Geology by Groshong Jr R.H. PDF

By Groshong Jr R.H.

ISBN-10: 3540310541

ISBN-13: 9783540310549

A CD-ROM accompanies this guide of sensible innovations for analyzing geological constructions at map scale from floor to subsurface maps. The CD-ROM has colour graphs and types, and the ebook contains new fabric, specifically examples of three-D versions and strategies for utilizing kinematic versions to foretell fault and ramp-anticline geometry. The publication is aimed at the pro consumer interested in the accuracy of an interpretation and the rate with which it may be bought from incomplete facts. various analytical recommendations are provided that should be simply carried out with a pocket calculator or a spreadsheet.

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As buckled stiff layers become more closely spaced, the wavelengths begin to interfere (Fig. 23) resulting in disharmonic folds. Once the layers are sufficiently closely spaced, they fold together as a multilayer unit. A multilayer unit has a much lower buckling stress and an appreciably shorter wavelength than a single layer of same thickness (Currie et al. 1962). Stiff units, either single layers or multilayers, tend to 15 16 Chapter 1 · Elements of Map-Scale Structure Fig. 22. End-member displacement boundary conditions showing responses related to the mechanical stratigraphy.

Reflections are interpreted to originate along ray paths that are normal to the reflector boundaries (Fig. 48a). A normal-incidence seismic ray is deflected up the dip (Fig. 48a). The true location of the reflecting point is up the dip and at a shallower depth than a point directly below the surface recording position. When the locations of reflecting points are plotted as if they were vertically below the surface recording stations, there will be a decrease in the calculated depth (or two-way travel time) relative to the true depth.

The most common effect is for a well to wander down dip with increasing depth. A dipmeter log is a microresistivity log that simultaneously measures the electrical responses of units along three or more tracks down a well (Schlumberger 1986). The 27 28 Chapter 1 · Elements of Map-Scale Structure Fig. 44. Typical example of electric logs used for lithologic and fluid identification. The interpreted lithologic column is in the center. Short normal (16 in) and long normal (64 in) refer to spacing between electrodes on the resistivity tool.

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